Before collecting data, decision maker or researcher must define data and how it is collected and analysis. Thus, decision maker or researcher must find out the need of data. Data is generally defined as response of respondents of question that is given by researcher or decision maker. It may express in form of text, word, description, opinion, audio and video. Data is defined as source or material collected by researcher to created or collected to generated the information. Thus, data are the facts that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form which is suitable for the better uses or processing for information used for decision making. Data are live blood for the research without it there is impossible to conduct research or the research is death. In research researcher always try to fulfill the objective of research bases on finding which is derived from the data collected by researcher.
Data in research are the facts, opinions, audio records, video records etc. which are collected by researcher or assistance to draw the finding of research for the fulfillment of the objectives of research.
Types of data
Generally, there are qualitative and quantitatively data used in the research. These types are developed according to the nature of the research. The explanation of qualitative data and quantitative data are present in following points:
It is also known as categorical data which are measure in either nominal or ordinal scale. Quantitative data are express in terms of natural language description because it deals with characteristics and does not have any numerical values. For example, sex of respondents, address, occupation, etc.
It is those types of data which have numerical values measure in either interval or ratio scale. The measurement of the quantitative data are integers or within same range. Quantitative data are also express in either in discrete nature or in continuous nature. Discrete Data are the data that ate express in the exact value like, number of children in family, number of family member, etc. which are express in integers and Continues Data are that data which can be measure in some range and is divided & reduce in finer level like age of person, day, month, etc.
In research the data can also be divided into trend data, cross section data and panel data. Trend data are the set of observation of the values that a variable takes at different times which may be daily, monthly, quarterly, semi-annually and annually basis. For example, growth rate of the country during 10 years, inflation rate of county for 10 years, etc. are the example of trend data. Cross section data are the data on one or more variable collected at the same period of time. For example, data collected by the research during the visit of field.