Descriptive research is conducted to describe the subject through observation or collecting data from other methods without influencing it in any conditions. This type of study is generally conducted to assess the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a given population and to describe the situation and event occurring at present. It does not necessarily seek to explain relationships, test hypothesis, make a prediction, or get meanings and implications of a study. It is used when there is less possibility to test and measure the large samples containing mostly quantitative data. The research answer what, how, when and so on but does not answer the question of why.
why Descriptive Research
The main aim of descriptive research design is to describe the linkage of variables used in research questions. Since, the researcher does not have enough theory about the subject matter not a full structural methodology is developed. But methodology in this research design is more rigorous than exploratory research design. The methodology used is not comprehensive but research need well planned research design . there are three methods of descriptive research. They are observational methods, case study methods and survey methods. The selection of methods depends upon the types of descriptive research. Research design of historical research, cohort research and other descriptive research are different according to context and nature. Historical research demand more key informant interview than questionnaire. Cohort research demand trend data rather than survey questionnaire and so on.
Descriptive Research Design
The research design is qualitative research design in general but these days mix methods using triangulation is adopted to reduce the question of validity and reliability. While designing the research, researcher at first select the research problem and define clear general and specific objectives. The objectives consider SMART for the successful research design. After setting the objectives the researcher selects the methodology used in research. It is selected by carefully studying literature reviews, considering advice from different reliable source and knowledge of researcher.
Methodology used in historical research, cohort or other descriptive research are different in nature. Thus, researchers must carefully consider appropriate methodology according to nature and type of research. After methodology is selected researcher select techniques and tools of data collection. Selection of tools of data analysis is done for the analysis of data, drawing finding and conclusion. Researcher consider format of report writing in the last stage of research design.