Research is defined as investigation that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way, to increase their knowledge. It is systematic recording and analysis of observation, and empirical studies focuses on definite objectives of either developing theories or finding the innovative way of solution of the problem. Research investigations are sufficiently wider to cover all types of investigations that are requiring to get solution to the problem, or creation of new facts or knowledge following systematic process where data are gather, recorded, analyses, and interpreted in an organized and systematic manner.
Walliman (2001) believed that following activities are not considered as research: Just collecting facts or information with no clear purpose, Reassembling and reordering facts or information without interpretation, As a term to get your product or idea noticed and respected.
So, research must have following characteristics
- Data are collected systematically
- Data are interpreted systematically
- There is a clear purpose: to find thing out.
Different expert gives the definition of research. Some of the definitions given by different experts are mention below:
Kerlinger (1986) “Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.”
Best (1992) “Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of observations that may lead to the development of the theory.”
Leedy (1989) “Research is a procedure by which we attempt to find systematically, and with the support of demonstrable fact, the answer to a question or the resolution of a problem.”
From above definition we find that there is the term “scientific” or “scientific investigation” so, the question is automatically arise in our mind “Is research a scientific activity?”. So, let’s examine wither research is scientific activities or not. Science simple is defining as method or logic of inquiry and to become scientific enquiry following core features must contain (Cooper and Pamela, Schindler, 2006):
- Direct observation of phenomena,
- Clearly defined variables, methods and procedures,
- Empirically testable hypothesis,
- The ability to rule out rival hypothesis,
- Statistical rather than linguistic justification of conclusion,
- Self-correcting process.
- The research as a scientific process because it
- Encounters a curiosity, doubt, barrier, obstacle, or suspicion,
- Struggles to state the problem,
- Proposes a hypothesis, a plausible example to explain the facts that are believed to be logically related to the problem,
- Deduces outcomes or consequences of the hypothesis,
- Formulation several rival hypothesis,
- Devises and conducted a crucial empirical test with various possible outcomes, each of which selectively excludes one or more hypothesis,
- Draw a conclusion based on acceptance or rejection of hypothesis,
- Feeds information back into the original problem, modifying it according to the strength of evidence.
Social research is a research which is conduct in order to extend knowledge about some aspect of social life. It is firstly carried out in order to inform decision about which policy might be most usefully implemented to solve every day’s issues and problems. Secondly it is conduct to evaluate the effectiveness of such policy in meeting the objectives. Thus, social research attempt to extend the knowledge and understanding of the world using socially approach methods. Social research does not exist in a bubble, these researches are closely tied to different vision of how social reality should be studied. Social research studies are likely to be initiated in order to solve an ongoing problem within an organizational setting or a particular work. The subject of social research often grows out of things that create the problems in people’s life or in society. If the individual problem is focus in research the it is the personal trouble and if the problems of group of people is focus then it is called social issues. Most of the research is focus on social issues found in our society. The social research is the systematic investigation of discovering the new facts or verifying the old facts to determine the interrelation or casual explanation which naturally govern them.