Process/Steps of Research
According to Alston and Bowles (2003) defining the problem, choosing the methodology, reviewing the literature, preparation, research design (sampling, data collection, administration, data analysis and reporting), conducting the research and disseminating the finding are the steps of the social work research. Das (2008) suggest the identification of problems, need assessment, selection of social work research design, pre-intevention measurement, introduce intervention and assess the intervention effects are the process of social work research. Similarly, Rubin and Bubbie (2011) argue that problem formulation, designing the study, data collection, data processing, data analysis,Know interpreting the finding and writing the research report. All above suggestion of different writer suggests that there is no universally accepted principle. The process of research must arrange in logical sequence according to the nature of research. In conclusion, following are the stage of research that we recommend while doing social research:
Stage one: Identification of Problem
Social work research begins with the identification of the problem by the social worker. The problem is realized at first while performing social work which stimulate social worker to conduct research. After the problem is realizes the researcher define the problem. In this process the general problem is define into research problem. The research may review the literature to define the problems in specific way.
Stage two: Setting the objective
After the problem is stated the next stage is to set the objective of the research. In research there are two types of objectives that must be set. At first the main objective must be set. The main objective is always related to the title of the research and in research there is only one main objective. After the main objective is set then specific objectives must be set which can be more than one in research. Specific objectives bridge the gap between main objective and variables used in research.
Stage three: Operationalization of Concept
The next stage of social work research is to define the concept. In this stage operational definition is used to define the concept so that the meaning of the concept used in the research is uniform to all.
Stage four: Research Design
In this stage sampling method and research methodology are design. There are different sampling method and the researcher selected appropriate sampling method. The appropriate method is that method which provide is suitable for research design, helpful to generate the more reliable and valid information.
In this stage research methodology is also design. The appropriate data collection method, data analysis method, scale construction is determined. Literature review plays the important role in this stage to define data needed, source of data, scale construction, etc.
Stage five: Collection of Data
In this stage the research visit field to collect required data through predetermine tools and techniques of data collection. Questionnaire, Interview, Observation, Focus Group Discussion, etc. are the tools of primary data collection.
Stage Six: Analysis of Data
After data is collected the next stage is to analysis the data to fulfil the objective of the study. The collected data are analysis using statistical tools to convert then into information. After data is analysis the finding of the research is derive for drawing conclusion.
Stage Seven: Report writing
It is the final stage of the research where social worker documentation the whole process of research through the report writing. The format of report may differ to organization to organization, person to person, but the main component is same