Types of Social Research
- Fundamental Vs Applied Research
Fundamental research is also called pure or basic research. The research that is conduct with the objective to development of new theory, new knowledge or to discover new facts are called fundamental research. So this types of research is conduct with the sole objectives to improve the understanding or developing fundamental knowledge which can be generalize in systematic way. The knowledge develop by the research may not have immediate application in the field.
Applied research, in other hand, is conduct with the objectives of solving the specific problem which require the immediate solution. Thus, this research is carried with the main aim of solving existing problems or to improve the knowledge which are immediate applicable. The applied research focus on the knowledge which have immediate application to the existing problem. This research provides fruitful knowledge for decision maker to solve the existing problem.
The differences between fundamental and Applied research are listed in following points:
|Pure Vs. applied research
- Quantitative Vs Qualitative Research
Quantitative research seeks to collect data which is in a numerical form, and which can be analyzed or presented by using tables or charts of figures, histograms, or statistics. They are best used for questions that related to “quantities”. They are about counting or measuring events or phenomena. Their data are very much associated with the positive approach to research. In this research advance statistical calculations are use as per needs of the research based on the objectives. Linear regression analysis, log regression, simulation, general linear model, etc. as per the need of research objectives.
Qualitative research, on the other hand, consists either of written or spoken words, and does not normally include any numerical measures. They are thus best used for the question that related to “quality” of or variation in experience. In this research simple basic statistical tools are used and data are generally measure in nominal or ordinal scale.
Most exploratory research is qualitative research. Qualitative research methods are connected with an interpretive approach. Following table shows the difference between quantitative and qualitative research:
|Qualitative research||Quantitative research|
|Researcher involvement||High- researcher is participant||Limited- control to prevent bias|
|Focus of research||Understand and interpret||Describe, explain and predict|
|Research purpose||In-depth study; theory building||Describe or predict; build and test theory|
|Sample design||Nonprobability; purposive||Probability sample|
|Sample size||Generally small||Generally large|
|Participant presentation||Pre-tasking is common||On preparation desired to avoid biasing the participant|
- Descriptive Research
It describes systematically a situation problem, phenomenon, service, program etc.
- Exploratory Research
It is also called feasibility study or pilot study. In this study researcher have little or no knowledge.
- Correlation Research
In this method, researcher has to define the variables and find the relationships between them
- Explanatory Research
This research explains why and how there is a relationship between two variables. This research shows relation between cause and effect with the help of collected information.